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PESTICIDE USE AND ADVERSE HEALTH IMPACT

EASTERN CAPE

INTRODUCTION OF A PILOT STUDY 

 

G.A. HEEREN MSc EEP (UK) MBChHB (D)

Department of Public Health, Cecilia Makiwane Hospital

Mdantsane, East London

Prof J Tyler Department of Statistics

University of Fort Hare Alice

 

 

AIM OF STUDY:

 

To ascertain the type of Pesticide used in AGRICULTURE and in the HOMES

To estimate the Health Impact

 

 

METHODOLOGY:

 

A questionnaire was designed and administered to a sample of people living in the rural districts of East London.

 

A pilot study was done on persons who were exposed to either occupational and / or environmental chemicals.

 

 

RESULTS:

 

 

EAST LONDON rural

 

 

Area

 

 

%

 

Altile

 

 

2

 

 

Kiwane

 

 

23

 

 

Laismesi

 

47

 

 

Seavale

 

 

28

 

 

LEVEL OF EDUCATION AND INCOME

 

        Educational Level

        Standard                %  Freq

        Less STD 8          76  (37)

        Less STD 10        14    (7)

        Uni                        10    (5)

 

 

   WATER ACCESS

 

TYPE OF WATER

 

%

 

Freq.

 

TAP

 

61

 

31

 

DAM

 

25

 

12

 

RAIN

 

6

 

3

 

TAP   +  RAIN

 

6

 

3

 

TAP   +  DAM

 

39

 

19

 

 

 

Collecting:                  Plastic container only

 

Storage:                      In 39 % Metall

 

Reused Container:     25%

 

 

FUEL USE

 

 

 

 

ELECTRICITY

 

GAS

 

PARAFFIN

 

WOOD

 

Never

 

67.3 %  (33)

 

79.6   %  (39)

 

22.4  %   (35)

 

26.5   %   (13)

 

Sometimes

 

       ---

 

  6.1   %    (3)

 

  6.1   %    (3)

 

   ---

 

Often

 

32.7 %  (16)

 

14.3   %    (7)

 

71.4   %  (35)

 

73.5   %   (36)

 

Used most

 

  6.3 %    (3)

 

  4.2   %    (2)

 

39.6   %  (19)

 

50.0   %   (24)

 

 

SOURCE OF ENERGY

 

74% Wood

 

 

 

CHEMICALS USED

 

 

PERCENTAGE

 

IN AGRICULTURE

 

81.6

 

 

Pesticide

 

 

51.0

 

Organophosphate

 

 

2.0

 

Organophosphate / Pyrethroid

 

 

24.5

 

Herbicide

 

 

4.1

 

 

 

 

For animals / dips

 

 

85.7

 

 

 

 

In Garden

 

 

67.4

 

Pesticide

 

 

40.8

 

Herbicide

4.1

 

 

 

 

In homes

 

93.6

 

 

 

 

 

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE and BEHAVIOUR

 

 

 

 

Never

 

Sometimes

 

Often

 

In the field

 

              -

 

92.9  %     (13)

 

7.1   %  (1)

 

Protective Clothes

 

              -

 

92.9  %     (13)

 

7.1   %  (1)

 

Reused Container

 

92.9  %  (13)

 

        -

 

7.1    % (1)

 

 

 

 

PRIVATE APPLIER and BEHAVIOUR

 

 

In the field

 

  4.0  %    (1)

 

16.0    %   (4)

 

80.0   %    (20)

 

Protective Clothes*

 

  4.0  %    (1)

 

12.0    %   (3)

 

84.0   %    (21)

 

Reused Container

 

37.5  %    (9)

 

54.2    %   (13)

 

  8.3   %      (2)

Data reliability questionable

 

 

 

LIVING / WORKING ON FARM AND IMPACT ON HEALTH

 

 

 

 

Pesticide

 

 

Organophospate

 

 

 

 

 

 

%

 

freq

 

%

 

freq

 

Chi-

 

p-value

 

Sick

 

38.5

 

   5

 

    61.5

 

8

 

         9.8

 

0.02837 *

 

Headache

 

12.5

 

   1

 

    75.0

 

6

 

7.22

 

0.02707 *

 

Stomach

 

   -

 

   -

 

    34.5

 

3

 

7.00

 

0.00815 *

 

 

 

 

OCCUPATIONAL AND PRIVATE APPLIER AND HEALTH

 

 

 

 

Occupational

 

Private

 

 

 

%

 

Freq

 

%

 

Freq

 

Sick

 

71.4

 

(10)

 

81.5

 

(22)

 

Headache

 

57.1

 

(8)

 

59.3

 

(16)

 

Dizziness

 

14.3

 

(2)

 

22.2

 

(6)

 

Stomach

 

21.4

 

(3)

 

51.9

 

 (14) *

 

Kidney

 

14.3

 

(2)

 

-

 

 

 

Miscarriage

 

7.7

 

(1)

 

9.5

 

(2)

 

Birth Defect

 

7.7

 

(1)

 

9.5

 

(2)

*  Chi square 5.56 p-value 0.01835

 

 

 

 

OCCUPATIONAL APPLIER AND HEALTH OUTCOME

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

 

PESTICIDE

 

ORGANOPHOSPHATE

 

%

 

Freq

 

%

 

Freq

 

%

 

Freq

 

Sick

 

69.2

 

9

 

7.7

 

1

 

66.7

 

8

 

Headache

 

53.8

 

7

 

7.7

 

1

 

50.0

 

6

 

Dizziness

 

15.4

 

2

 

-

 

 

 

16.7

 

2

 

Stomach

 

23.1

 

3

 

7.7

 

1

 

16.7

 

2

 

Kidney

 

15.4

 

2

 

-

 

 

 

16.7

 

2

 

Miscarriage

 

 

 

2

 

-

 

 

 

8.3

 

1

 

Birth Defect

 

7.7

 

1

 

-

 

 

8.3

 

1

 

PRIVATE APPLIER AND HEALTH OUTCOME

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

 

PESTICIDE

 

ORGANOPHOSPHATE

 

%

 

Freq

 

%

 

Freq

 

%

 

Freq

 

Sick

 

80.0

 

20

 

78.3

 

18

 

8.0

 

2

 

Headache

 

60.0

 

15

 

56.5

 

13

 

8.0

 

2

 

Dizziness

 

24.0

 

6

 

26.1

 

6

 

-

 

 

Stomach

 

52.0

 

13

 

47.8

 

11

 

-

 

 

Kidney

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

Miscarriage

 

10.0

 

2

 

11.1

 

2

 

-

 

 

Birth Defect

 

8.0

 

2

 

8.7

 

2

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

MISCARRIAGE AND BIRTH DEFECTS

IN ASSOCIATION WITH CHEMICAL USE AND BEHAVIOUR

 

 

Rec

 

Age

 

Misc

 

Birth d

 

Home

 

Dip

 

Pesticide*

 

Field

 

Occ

 

Environ

 

Sick

 

19

 

35

 

Y

 

Y

 

Y

 

N

 

Organomix

 

Sometimes

 

Mixt

 

Mixture

 

No

 

32

 

31

 

Y

 

 

 

Y

 

Y

 

Pesticide

 

Often

 

N

 

N

 

Yes

 

41

 

35

 

Y

 

 

Y

 

Y

 

Pesticide

 

Often

 

N

 

Pesticide

 

Yes

 

40

 

32

 

 

Y

 

Y

 

Y

 

Pesticide

 

Often

 

N

 

Pesticide

 

Yes

 

43

 

39

 

 

Y

 

Y

 

N

 

Pesticide

 

often

 

N

 

Pesticide

 

Yes

* These Pesticide are used in the fields

 

 

RECOMMENDATION:

 

        More detailed studies

        Awareness campaign

        Surveillance systems:

        Monitoring cases of poisoning

        Monitoring sites of ground water

        Monitoring air in different areas

 

 

 

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